This is a glossary with terms that you might encounter while working in the education field and policy.
This resource is good for educators learning the language, youth looking for definitions or working in reproductive justice organizations that try to change policy, and parents who are trying to understand reproductive justice.
Click here to read the full glossary.
Expanding Medicaid to LGBTQQ African americans is important because:
- LGBTQQ community is less likely to be discriminated
- More care for those with HIV
- 21% of LGBTQQ are parents raising children. Coverage would benefit them and their children.
To read the full fact sheet click here.
This resource guide is provided by the section of family planning at the University of Chicago. It was develepod in 2014 and is a reference guide for legal information regarding abortion care and considerations.
- The U.S. Supreme Court has held that the right to an abortion is fundamental, but not absolute.
- A physician, in the course of evaluating the specific circumstances of an individual case, determines when abortion is necessary to preserve health and when a fetus is considered viable.
- Laws, policies, and court decisions at the federal, state, and local level affect individuals seeking access to abortion in Illinois.
Click here to read more about the legal rights regarding abortion in Illinois
Planned Parenthood Illinois Action (PPIA) is an independent, nonpartisan, not-for-profit organization formed as the advocacy and political arm of Planned Parenthood of Illinois (PPIL).
PPIA engages in educational and electoral activity, including public education campaigns, grassroots organizing, and legislative advocacy, on behalf of commonsense policies that protect the reproductive health and rights of women, teens, and families. The Planned Parenthood Illinois Political Action Committee (PAC) is a nonpartisan political action committee committed to supporting pro-choice, pro-family planning candidates for office.
PPIA is a visible and passionate supporter of policies that enable Illinoisans to access comprehensive sexual and reproductive health care, education, and information. Whether talking to members of Congress, members of the Illinois General Assembly, parents or community leaders, they fight for an agenda that promotes women’s health and access to reproductive health care, as well as an agenda that protects the health and safety of young people by providing them with comprehensive sex education.
PPIA has thousands of activists, supporters, and donors statewide. The action network helps pass and defeat legislation, elects public officials, and influences the political climate in the state of Illinois.
To learn more about the Planned Parenthood Illinois Political Action Committee, click here.
The Chicago Department of Public Health works to make Chicago a safer and healthier place by working with community partners to promote health, prevent disease, reduce environmental hazards and ensure access to health care for all Chicagoans. The CDPH works to provide leadership for public health, identify, analyze, & track issues, define problems and guide public health action, inspect food establishments to ensure safe food supply, and establish a public health presence in city neighborhoods.
To learn more about the mission and services of the Chicago Department of Public Health, click here.
EngenderHealth is a global organization dedicated to activism in sexual and reproductive health, specializing in women’s health. For over seven decades, EngenderHealth has been a positive force for improving the lives of men, women, and families with their impressive range of programming. According to their mission, EngenderHealth works to “promote gender equity, advocate for sound practices and policies, and inspire people to assert their rights to better, healthier lives” by partnering with local organizations in dozens of countries around the world.
The website is home to a wide array of resources published by EngenderHealth, including training curricula, clinical guidelines, instructional videos, brochures, papers, and articles, many of which are available for free download. These materials cover topics such as Family Planning, HIV, AIDS, and STIs, Maternal Health, and Gender Equity, among others. They have a variety of informational videos as well.
The Future of Sex Education’s mission is to promote the institutionalization of comprehensive sexuality education in public schools. One of their most important accomplishments is the new National Sexuality Education Standards to provide clear, consistent and straightforward guidance on the essential minimum core content for sexuality education. Click here to download the National Sexuality Education Standards as a free handy PDF document.
FoSE has also published other useful resources, including a Public Education Primer, School Health Primer (coming soon), a Glossary of Education Terms, and The Future of Sex Education: A Strategic Framework.
Visit the Future of Sex Education webpage by clicking here.
UPDATE: While the parental involvement law was not in place in Illinois at the time the research was performed, the Illinois Parental Notice of Abortion is now in effect. Under this act, health care providers must notify an adult family member 48 hours before performing an abortion for a patient under 18 years old. There are now a total of 39 states in the U.S. that have parental involvement laws in effect.
Researchers interviewed 30 women ages 14 to 17 who were seeking abortion services in Chicago to learn their opinions about the parental involvement law.
- Participants were very concerned that the parental involvement law could harm minors.
- Most participants believed that it is their private decision to choose who to tell or don’t tell, that parents are not necessarily the people they trust the most and that they will lose control over their bodies. (Kavanagh et al., 2012. p.161)
- “Many participants expressed concern that […] some parents might […] force [them] to continue the pregnancy” (Kavanagh et al., 2012. p.162)
- Many participants fear unsupportive parents will physically or emotionally abuse them, kick them out of the house or be disappointed with them (Kavanagh et al., 2012. p.162)
- Participants did mention some benefits of the parental involvement law
- They would be able to gain outside support during this difficult decision
- Their parents or guardians would know if complications arise from the procedure
- It would maintain a sense of trust between the parent/guardian and daughter
- All states that mandate parental involvement also allow a judicial bypass option but participants view this option as another barrier to abortion. (Kavanagh et al., 2012. p.164)
Read more about the Illinois Parental Notice of Abortion Act here and here
Read more about Parental Involvement in Minors’ Abortions here
Citation: Kavanagh, E.K., Lee, A., Hasselbacher, B.B., Tristan, S. and Gilliam, M. (2012). Abortion-Seeking Minors’ Views on the Illinois Parental Notification Law: A Qualitative Study. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. Vol.44., Issue 3.,159-166.
PDF of the Article
Reuters released an article detailing a study done by Mark Hatzenbuehler from Columbia University that “found lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) youth are less likely to attempt suicide when surrounded by a supportive social environment.” The original source research article was published in Pediatrics and is titled “Social Environment Linked to Gay Teen Suicide Risk.” The research study was based on data from three years’ worth of health surveys that were completed by high school students in Oregon.
They found several interesting results:
- LGB youth were more likely to attempt suicide compared to heterosexual youth (21.5% vs. 4.2%)
- Among LGB youth, the risk of committing suicide was 20% greater in unsupportive environments compared to supportive environments.
- A supportive environment was associated with a fewer suicide attempts.
This research study revealed that a negative environment can increase risk for suicide attempts among LGB youth and policy change should focus on improving social environment to address sexual-orientation related disparities in suicide attempts.
Pittman, G. “Social Environment Linked to Gay Teen Suicide Risk.” Reuters. 18 April, 2011. Web. 8 Dec, 2013.
Hatzenbuehler, M. “The Social Environment and Suicide Attempts in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth.” (2011). Pediatrics. doi: 10.1542.
Link to Reuters Article
Link to Source Article by Hatzenbuehler
The Make it Better Project was launched in 2010 by the Gay-Straight Alliance Network in order to provide youth and adults concrete tools to make schools safer for LGBT students.
“The Make it Better Project aims to educate, motivate, and unite students and adults to effectively take action to stop bullying and harassment in schools based on actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity”
The website provides ideas and information for youth to increase LGBT awareness and community at the school level and at state and national levels. There are also resources for parents, teachers and school administrators, and adult supporters who want to take a stand against bullying and advocate for LGBT youth and their rights.
There are also resources for individuals who want support or need to speak to someone in a confidential manner about LGBT issues.
You can connect with the Make it Better Project via their blog, Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, and Flickr.
Planned Parenthood, founded in 1916, is an organization that is committed to providing trusted health care, educating and informing the community, leading the reproductive health and rights movement, and advancing global health.
“Planned Parenthood believes in the fundamental right of each individual, throughout the world, to manage his or her fertility, regardless of the individual’s income, marital status, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, national origin, or residence.”
The website provides up-to-date, clear, and medically accurate information about a variety of topics such as:
Planned Parenthood health centers also provide a variety of services such as:
- Birth Control
- Emergency Contraception (Morning After Pill)
- General Health Care
- HIV Testing
- LGBT Health Care
- Men’s Health Care
- Pregnancy Testing & Services
- STD Testing, Treatment & Vaccines
- Women’s Health Care
Click here to find your closest Planned Parenthood Health Clinic.
Connect with Planned Parenthood via Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, and Youtube.
The American Sexual Health Association, founded in 1914, aims to communicate to the public, patients, press, providers and policy makers by developing and delivering sensitive health information about sexual health and sexually transmitted diseases/infections.
Their mission statement:
“The American Sexual Health Association promotes the sexual health of individuals, families and communities by advocating sound policies and practices and educating the public, professionals and policy makers, in order to foster healthy sexual behaviors and relationships and prevent adverse health outcomes.”
The website provides information about:
- Sexual Health (Condom use, women’s health, men’s health, FAQs…etc.)
- STDs/STIs (Statistics, Reducing Risk, Getting Tested, HPV, Chlamydia, etc.)
- Education Resources for Health Providers (Videos, Resources for Medical Students, etc.)
- Education Resources for Parents (How to Talk to Your Kids, Start the Conversation, etc.)
- Education Resources for Teachers (Comprehensive Sex Ed, STIs & Young People, etc.)
You can also get updates from the ASHA Blog and through their Youtube channel.
Advocates for Youth, established in 1980, aims to help young people make informed and responsible decisions about their sexual and reproductive rights. They focus on working with young people ages 14-25 in the U.S. and abroad and treat young people as a valuable resource.
Advocate for Youth’s Rights. Respect. Respnsibility (3Rs) Core Values:
RIGHTS: Youth have the right to accurate and complete sexual health information, confidential reproductive and sexual health services, and a secure stake in the future.
RESPECT: Youth deserve respect. Valuing young people means involving them in the design, implementation and evaluation of programs and policies that affect their health and well-being.
RESPONSIBILITY: Society has the responsibility to provide young people with the tools they need to safeguard their sexual health, and young people have the responsibility to protect themselves from too-early childbearing and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV.
Their website contains information such as:
They also publish a variety of publications ranging from topics such as “Peer Education” to “State Facts” and “Abstinence Only Programs.”
You can connect with Advocates for Youth via Facebook, Twitter, & Tumblr
Fact sheet regarding the Illinois School Code regarding Sex Education (105 ICLS 5/27_9.1) and the Critical Health Problems and Comprehensive Health Education Act (105 ICLS 110/).
The Office of Population Affairs (OPA) oversees the Title X program, the only federal program dedicated to family planning and related preventive services, and also advises the Secretary and Assistant Secretary for Health on reproductive health topics, family planning, adolescent pregnancy and other population issues.
The OPA oversee research and grants that support:
- Family Planning— assists individuals in determining the number and spacing of their children through education, counseling and comprehensive medical services
- Embryo Adoption Program–increases public awareness of embryo donation and adoption
* Title XX Adolescent Family Life was originally administered by the Office of Population Affairs but has moved to the Office of Adolescent Health since 2012.
The OPA website also has information regarding general reproductive health, contraception, and STIs.
You can connect with them via Twitter.
Advocates for Youth is an organization that is
Dedicated to creating programs and advocating for policies that help young people make informed and responsible decisions about their reproductive and sexual health.
The Science and Success (2nd ed. 2008): Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections publication highlights 26 U.S Based programs that have been proven effictive at delaying sexual initiation or reducing sexual risk taking among teens.
- 14 out of 26 of the programs demonstrated a statistically significant delay in the timing of first sex among youth.
- 14 out of 26 of the programs increased use of condoms
- 9 out of 26 demonstrated an increase of other forms of contraception
- 13 out of 26 showed a reduction in the number of sex partners and/or an increase in monogamy among participants
- 7 out of 26 assisted sexually active youth to reduce the frequency of sexual intercourse
- 10 out of 26 helped reduce the incidence of unprotected sex.
- 13 out of 26 programs showed a decline in tenn pregnancy, HIV or other STIs.
- 9 out of 26 showed a significant impact on teen pregnancy
- 4 out of 26 showed a reduced trend in STIs
- 6 programs achieved improvements in youth’s receipt of health care.
23 of the programs listed in the publication include information about absitence and contraception. The remaining three are programs for early childhood interventions and one is service learning program.
To visit Advocates For Youth’s website click HERE.
For the full publication: Programs that work 2008 full rpt
For the Summary of Programs: Programs that work 2008 Exec Sum
This fact sheet issued by ICAH reviews the recommendations for Sexual Health Education in schools by Medical and Public Health organizations such as:
- American Academy of Pediatrics
- American Medical Association
- World Health Organization
- American Public Health Association
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
- Society for Adolescent Medicine
These organizations recommend that Sexual Health Education programs should include the following topics:
- Basics of reproduction
- Human development (puberty)
- Sexually transmitted infections
- Contraceptives and other barrier methods
- Communication and behavioral skills (negotiation, refusal, etc)
- Relationships (familial, sexual, platonic)
- Information about access and/or condom availability
- Sexual orientation and gender
- Decision -making, values, and responsibility
In addition to these topics, some organizations have further recommendations or guidance on Sexual Health Education.
To view the fact sheet click HERE
For further information regarding National Education Standards for Sexual Health Education please visit Futureofsexeducation.org for PDF handouts of the standards for grades K-12.
In 2007 the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy issued a report on New Research that Identifies Effictive Teen Sex Education Programs and Other Interventions.
The report, conducted by Dr. Douglas Kirby, PhD, evaluates 115 programs. Two thirds of the programs examined focus on abstinence and contraception and their positive effect on teen behavior.
The report also includes results in regards to access to contraception, condoms and whether educational programs that include parents and teens have any affect on whether teens engage in sexual activity.
You can view the summary of the report here.
Or the full report here.
Visit The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy
This article, written by Brigid McKeon (Advocates for Youth) provides an overview of the effectiveness and characteristics of comprehensive sex education and the dangers of abstinence-only programs .
By age 18, 70% of U.S. females and 62% of U.S. males have initiated vaginal sex. Adolescents have a fundamental human right to comprehensive and accurate sexual health information in order to make healthy decisions about sex and healthy sexual behaviors.
The article provides statistics and data supporting several points–
- Comprehensive sex education is effective and does not promote sexual risks
- Abstinence-Only programs are dangerous, ineffective and inaccurate
- Medical organizations, parents and the public support comprehensive sex education
The fact sheet also includes characteristics of effective sex education as well as medical and public health recommendations to support comprehensive sex education.
Link to “Effective Sex Education”
In 2005, the federal government planned to spend $170 million dollars on abstinence-only sex education programs under the Bush administration. At the request of Rep. Henry Waxman, this report evaluates the content of the most popular abstinence-only curricula used by grantees of the largest federal abstinence initiative at the time, SPRANS (Special Programs of Regional and National Significance Community-Based Abstinence Education). Through SPRANS, the Department of Health and Human Services provides grants to community organizations that teach abstinence-only curricula to youth. The curricula used in SPRANS and other federally funded programs are not reviewed for accuracy by the federal government.
The report finds that over 80% of the abstinence-only curricula, used by over two-thirds of SPRANS grantees in 2003, contain false, misleading, or distorted information about reproductive health. Some examples include:
- None of the curricula provides information on how to select a birth control method and use it effectively. However, several curricula exaggerate condom failure rates in preventing pregnancy.
- Two other curricula understate condom effectiveness by neglecting to explain that failure rates represent the chance of pregnancy over the course of a year. One states: “Couples who use condoms to avoid a pregnancy have a failure rate of 15%.”50 The other claims: “The typical failure rate for the male condom is 14% in preventing pregnancy.”51 These statements inaccurately suggest that the chance of pregnancy is 14% to 15% after each act of protected intercourse. In addition, they do not make clear that most condom “failure” is due to incorrect or inconsistent use.
The report provides details about the following conclusions–
- Contain false information about the effectiveness of contraceptives
- Contain false information about the risks of abortion
- Blur religion and science
- Treat stereotypes about girls and boys as scientific fact
- Contain scientific errors
Citation: United States House of Representatives (2004). The Content of Federally Funded Abstinence-Only Education Programs.
Link to “Waxman Report- Abstinence Only Programs”