Chicago Women’s Health Center

This website is the CWHC’s website. It describes the services they offer including:

  • counseling
  • acupuncture
  • massage
  • gynecology check ups

They offer sliding scale.

This site is useful for those that do not have insurance, students, and anyone who is in need of holistic medical care.

Click here to visit the website.



The Price of Our Blood: Why Ferguson Is a Reproductive Justice Issue

This article takes on a recent event and applies a reproductive justice lens on it. It talks about how what happened in Ferguson is related to women’s reproductive justice because having and raising a child in the U.S. is tough.

This article is good for teachers and professors wanting to talk about recent events with their students. It is also a good resource for Gender Women Studies classes that want to draw the link between current events and reproductive justice.

To read the rest of the article click here.

2014 Deportations Hurt Women Infographic Series

This resource shows statistics and images about how deportations affect women and their reproductive health.

Women who migrate to the U.S. and are undocumented risk being detained and deported. This separates the mother from the child. Women try to come back and reunite with children but if caught are then held in detention center a.k.a prison away from their children. These children are placed in the welfare system. Women are detained when migrating to the U.S and denied proper healthcare.

Click here to go to this resource.

Go Ask Alice!


Go Ask Alice! is Columbia University’s health Q&A Internet resource. There are six category pages of questions answered —Alcohol & Other Drugs, Emotional Health, Fitness and Nutrition, General Health, Relationships, and Sexual and Reproductive Health. The goal of Go Ask Alice! is to keep readers inquisitive, informed, and healthy.

This resource is good for educators, young people who have questions, and organizations that work with young people. This resource is also valuable to parents.

To read more about Go Ask Alice! click here. 

Comprehensive Sex Education: Research and Results (2009)

This research takes a look at federal spending on abstinence programs that are proven ineffective.  Statistics that compare the effectiveness of abstinence only programs with comprehensive sex education programs show that the latter is greater and that abstinence programs have no viewable effect on teens reducing sexual activity and/or using safety measures if they do engage in such acts.

  • A congressionally mandated study of four popular abstinence-only programs by the Mathematica found that they were entirely ineffective.  Students who participated in the programs were no more likely to abstain from sex than other students.
  • Experts estimate that about one young person in the United States is infected with HIV every hour of every day.
  • Among youth participating in “virginity pledge” programs, researchers found that among sexually experienced youth, 88 % broke the pledge and had sex before marriage.  Further, among all participants, once pledgers began to have sex, they had more partners in a shorter period of time and were less likely to use contraception or condoms than were their non-pledging peers.

In addition to the information regarding the research done on abstinence programs, the article also includes information regarding the success and need for comprehensive sex education.  According to studies completed, as listed in the article, comprehensive sex education works to reduce teen sexual behavior and encourages using safety measures.

Beyond the results, the article also provides the statistics and information as to why it is so crucial for comprehensive sex education programs.

Citation:  Advocates for Youth (2009).  Comprehensive Sex Education:  Research and Results.

Link to article.

Teen Source

STDs, Teens, Birth Control, Sexual Health, Relationships  is an online resource for young adults ages 13-24. With reliable, non-judgemental information in regards to sexual health, STDs, Birth Control, Contraceptives and relationships. In addition to providing this information to all teens, the website also features a clinic locator for teens in California as well as information on the rights teens have to health care in the state of California.

Link to website.

Go Ask Alice!



Go Ask Alice! is a health Q&A resource produced by Alice! Health Promotion at Columbia University.

The website allows browsers to submit questions in regards to health, search for answers through thousands of already answered questions and obtain reliabable health information.

Questions are not limited to sexual health but also include; alcohol & drugs, nutrition, emotional health, fitness, relationships and general health questions.

All questions are updated to reflect the most current health information and research.

To visit the website and Ask Alice your own questions: Go Ask Alice!

Health-Risk Behaviors in Young Adolescents in Child Welfare System (YEAR)

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Purpose: To examine rates and patters of health-risk behavior (e.g., sexuality, depression/suicidality, substance use, delinquency) among a national probability of youth active to the child welfare systems, Medicaid, and pediatric experts to collaborate to ensure youth entering foster care receive comprehensive health examinations.

Results: Almost half of the sample (46.3%) endorsed at least one health-risk behavior. On Poisson multivariate regression modeling, factors related to higher rates of health-risk behaviors included older age, female gender, abuse history, deviant peers, limited caregiver monitoring, and poor school engagement.

Conclusion: Given the heightened vulnerability of this population, early screening for health-risk behaviors must be prioritized. Further research should explore specific subpopulations at risk for health-risk behaviors and possible interventions to change these youths’ trajectories.

To view the entire review: Health-Risk Behaviors in Young Adolescents in the Child Welfare System


Leslie, L.K., James, S., Monn, A., Kauten, M.C., Zhang, J., & Aarons, G. (2010) Health-Risk Behaviors in Young Adolescents in the Child Welfare System, Journal of Adolescent Health. 47, 26-34

Family Rejection as a Predictor of Negative Health Outcomes in White and Latino Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Young Adults


Objective: We examined specific family rejecting reactions to sexual orientation and gender expression during adolescense as predictors of current health problems in a sample of lesbian, gay and bisexual young adults.

Results: Higher rates of family rejection were significantly associated with poorer health outcomes. On the basis of odds ratios, lesbian, gay and bisexual young adults who reported higher levels of family rejection during adolescense were 8.4 times more likely to report having attempted suicide, 5.9 times more likely to report high levels of depression, 3.4 times more likely to use illegal drugs, and 3.4 times more likely to report having engaged in uprotected sexual intercourse compared with peers from families that reported no or low levels of family rejection. Latino men reported the highest number of negative family reactions to their sexual orientation in adolescence.

Conclusions: This study establishes a clear link between specific parental and caregiver rejecting behaviors and negative health problems in young lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. Providers who serve this population should assess and help educate families about the impact of rejecting behaviors. Couseling families, providing anticipatory guidance, and referring families for couseling and support can help make a critical difference in helping decrease risk and increase well-being for lesbian, gay and bisexual youth.

To view the entire review: Family Rejection of LGBTQ Youth


Ryan, C., Huebner, D., Diaz, R. M., & Sanchez, J., (2009) Family Rejection as a Predictor of Negative Health Outcomes in White and Latino Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Young Adults, Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. 123, 346-352

Helping Parents Improve Adolescent Health (2007)



Parents play a critical role in promoting adolescent health and development. An analysis of data from six cross-national studies, representing 53 different countries, found that parent-child relationships affect the likelihood of early sexual initiation, substance use, and depression among adolescents.

The study recommends for programs that involve parents and adolescent health and development to include:

  • Focus on outcomes among parents as well as among adolescents.
  • Specify assumptions behind working with parents to influence adolescent health
  • Plan and design interventions carefully, basing them on appropriate theory, research, and knowledge of local culture and customs.
  • Tap the experience of local organizations, networks, and traditions to reach parents through mulitple channels.
  • Offer a balance of information, skills building, support, and resources.
  • Conduct evaluation and share experiences among parenting projects.

The available evidence shows that programs can help parents in developing countries promote adolescent health and development.

To view the full report: Helping Parents Improve Adolescent Health

Adolescent Self-Report on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2009)


Government legislation and policy is set to target youth who engage in risky behaviors such as illegal drug and alcohol use, unprotected sex, and unhealthy weight-loss practices, using surveys like the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the Monitoring the Future Survey. Teens have a tendency to retract statements about their risky behavior, making reports about their behavior inaccurate and the policy used to target this group inadequate. In this study, researchers use a 72-question survey, asked in two-week intervals, to examine teens’ risky behavior. This survey is formatted to be a more reliable measure of adolescent behavior, taking into consideration their inconsistencies when self-reporting risk behaviors.

  • “Inconsistent reports may also carry information on adolescents’ beliefs about the identity salience of their behaviors, including which behaviors they see as most central to their identities. Respondents are likely to inaccurately report behavior that conflicts with their identities or values, and beliefs.” (Rosenbaum, 2009, p. 1389)
  • “In a 2-week period, adolescents’ reports of their sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco histories were more reliable than their reports of other behaviors; by contrast, in longer intervals, these behaviors were reported much less reliably than other behaviors.” (Rosenbaum, 2009, p. 1394)
  • “Survey report consistency may be connected to adolescents’ identities. In short periods, adolescents present their sex and substance use consistently, but, in long periods, adolescents may change their social affiliations and these behaviors and thus report inconsistently.” (Rosenbaum, 2009, p. 1395)

Citation: Rosenbaum, J.E. (2009). Truth or consequence: The intertemporal consistency of adolescent self-report on the youth risk behavior survey. American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 169., No. 11., 1388-1397

Link to article.

Illinois YRBS Results 2011 (Excluding Chicago)


This survey is by the Child Health Data Lab and consists of findings from high school students from 33 Illinois public schools with the exception of Chicago. Students were asked about various risk-taking behaviors, including sexual health. The survey included multiple charts and graphs. Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) results from years  2007 and 2009 are also listed on this survey.

  • “76% of youth surveyed were not physically active for a total of at least 60 minutes per day on seven of the past seven days.”
  • “56% of youth surveyed had have had sexual intercourse.”
  • “92% of youth surveyed Did not eat fruits two or more times per day or vegetables three or more times per day during the past seven days.”

Citation: Child Health Data Lab. (2011). Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Retrieved from

Link to survey.

HHS Plan to Reduce HIV-related Racial Health Disparities (2011)

In 2011, the US Department of Health and Human Services released their action plan for reducing HIV-related health disparities within different racial and ethnic populations.

“Now, this first-ever HHS Disparities Action Plan and the NPA Stakeholder Strategy can be used together to coordinate action that will effectively address racial and ethnic health disparities across the country. Furthermore, the HHS Disparities Action Plan builds on national health disparities’ goals and objectives recently unveiled in Healthy People 2020, and leverages key provisions of the Affordable Care Act and other cutting-edge HHS initiatives.”

Read the HHS Plan  [opens new window]

Estimation of HIV Incidence in the United States (2008)

Journal of the American Medical Association article conclusion states: This study provides the first direct estimates of HIV incidence in the United States using laboratory technologies previously implemented only in clinic-based settings. New HIV infections in the United States remain concentrated among men who have sex with men and among black individuals.

For a full text version of this article, please contact your local library.

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Social and Emotional Consequences of Refraining from Sex (2008)


This article examines positive and negative social and emotional consequences that 9th grade adolescents face when refraining from sexual activity (oral and vaginal sex). The students were from two public high schools in California and were researched for 6 months (from 9th grade to 10th grade). This study measured sexual experience and consequences of refraining for sex according to gender and in terms of the amount of sexual experience of the teenager.

American Journal of Public Health article concluded that “sexual education programs should address how adolescents can cope with or prevent negative consequences of refraining from sexual activity, so that decisions to abstain are rewarding and decisions to engage in sexual activity are motivated by maturity and readiness.” (p. 162)

  • “The percentage of adolescents who reported only positive consequences dropped from 46% to 24% from the fall of ninth grade to the spring of 10th grade among adolescents who remained sexually inexperienced throughout the study.” (p. 164-165)
  • “Regardless of sexual experience, reports of any positive consequences of refraining from sexual activity decreased over time, whereas reports of any negative consequences of refraining from sexual activity increased over time.” (p. 165)

Citation: Brady, S.S. & Halpern-Felsher, B.L. (2008) Social and emotional consequences of refraining from sexual activity among sexually experienced and inexperienced youth in California. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 98., No. 1. 162-168

Link to article.

Long-Term Effects of Age of Sexual Debut (2008)


Using the 1996 National Sexual Health Survey, researchers compared sexual health outcomes of people who engaged in sexual activity before the normal age range and after the normal age range. Researchers also examined the sexual health outcomes of individuals who had pre-marital and post-marital sex.

American Journal of Public Health journal article concluded that “early sexual debut is associated with certain long-term negative sexual health outcomes, including increased sexual risk behaviors and problems in sexual functioning. Late initiation was also associated with sexual problems, especially among men. Further research is needed to understand how sexual initiation patterns affect later health outcomes.” (Sanfort et al., 2008, p.155)

  • “Men and women who had had an early start reported more sexual partners in the past year and the preceding 5 years and were more likely to have had sexual intercourse with at least 1 risky partner in the preceding 1 and 5 years.” (Sanfort et al., 2008, p. 157)
  •  “Men and women whose first sexual intercourse had occurred after marriage reported fewer sexual partners and were less likely to have had sexual intercourse with a risky partner in the preceding 5 years. Women whose first sexual intercourse had occurred after marriage were less likely to have had sexual intercourse under the influence of alcohol or drugs.” (Sanfort et al., 2008, p. 157)

Citation: Sanfort, T. G. M., Orr, M., Hirsch, J.S., and Santelli, J. (2008). Long-term health correlates of timing of sexual debut: Results from a national US study. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 98., No. 155-161

Link to article.