Young Women Who Have Sex with Women – Falling Thru the Cracks for Sexual Health Care (2001)

This article, published by Advocates for Youth, focuses on the risks that young women who have sex with women (YWSW) face.  It is often assumed that YWSW are at little or no risk for HIV, other STIs and unintended pregnancies when in fact, YWSW can be at risk for all three.

Interesting data and statistics include–

  • “Some women who have sex with women are uncomfortable with routine gynecological care, including PAP smears and STI screening.”
  • “98% of the 347 women who reported having sex only with other women also reported other risk behaviors, such as injection drug use.”
  • Many YWSW also have sexual intercourse with men, including men who have sex with other men.

Health care providers and researchers take incomplete sexual histories and often overlook YWSW altogether.  There is a lack of prevention messages targeted towards these youth and an assumption that YWSW are “too young” to identify as lesbian or participate in risk behaviors.

Tips and recommendations are included to facilitate the improvement of health care of YWSW and target their health needs.

Citation: Gilliam, J. Young Women Who Have Sex with Women: Falling through the Cracks for Sexual Health Care. (2001). Advocates for Youth-Issues at a Glance.

Link to PDF of “Young Women Who Have Sex with Women: Falling through the Cracks for Sexual Health Care”

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Respecting the Rights of GLBTQ Youth (2002)

Summary:

This Transitions article aims to compile and detail the best approach to help programs focus on the needs of GLBTQ youth and offers factual information and risks that GLBTQ youth face.  It includes fact sheets, tips and suggestions, GLBTQ’s health care bill of rights and first hand accounts by teens and youth advocates.

A survey conducted (at the time of this article) revealed that around 5.5% of high school youth self-identified as gay, lesbian, bisexual and/or reported same-gender sexual contact.  Society in the U.S. sometimes show stigma towards GLBTQ people and societal homophobia can cause these youths to devalue themselves and feel isolated and alone.  GLBTQ youth may also feel more inclined to drop out, run away, use drugs and attempt suicide because of societal stress.

In 2001, Advocates for Youth launched the Rights. Respect. Responsibility. (3Rs) campaign.  Youth, regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity have the right to comprehensive sexual health education and services and deserve respect.  Society also has the responsibility to provide young people with education and resources so that they can informed decisions.  The article details how programs can implement this framework into serving GLBTQ youth.

Citation:

Gilliam, J. Respecting the Rights of GLBTQ Youth, A Responsibility of Youth-Serving Professionals. 2002. Advocates for Youth Transitions.

Link to PDF

 

Our Daughters and Sons (2006)

“Our Daughters and Sons” is a booklet published by the organization Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG) that focuses on educating parents whose children might be or are gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender.  The booklet provides very detailed answers to common questions that parents may have such as “Why is my chid gay?” and “Should we consult a psychiatrist or psychologist?”

The topics discussed include coping mechanisms, how to support sons and daughters, communication, religion, HIV/AIDS and legal concerns.  Additionally, there is a list of famous gay, lesbian and bisexual individuals and additional resources and information.

Citation:

New York City Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays. Our Daughters and Sons: Questions and Answers for Parents of Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual People. 2006. Can We Understand? A Guide for Parents. 

Link to PDF of “Our Daughters and Sons”

Questions and Answers: LGBTQ Youth Issues FAQ

This online resource on the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SEICUS) website focuses on answering common questions regarding LGBTQ youth.  Topics discussed include data from surveys regarding same-sex sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS and STD risks, mental health, homelessness, schools and education and general trends.

Citation:

“Questions and Answers: LGBTQ Youth Issues.” Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States. n.p. n.d. Web. 9 Jan. 2014.

Link to “Questions and Answers: LGBTQ Youth Issues

NCHHSTP State Profiles from Centers for Disease Control (2010)

The 2010 NCHHSTP State Profile is the most recent (as of Jan 2014) statistical report released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that provides information regarding HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB for all 50 states.  Each report also includes descriptions of prevention and control programs that the specific state public health officials and CDC support.

Click here for the PDF of the “NCHHSTP 2010 National Report”

Click here for the PDF of the “NCHHSTP 2010 Illinois Report”

Click here for the link to NCHHSTP Reports for other states

 

Effective Sex Education (2006)

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This article, written by Brigid McKeon (Advocates for Youth) provides an overview of the effectiveness and characteristics of comprehensive sex education and the dangers of abstinence-only programs .

By age 18, 70% of U.S. females and 62% of U.S. males have initiated vaginal sex.  Adolescents have a fundamental human right to comprehensive and accurate sexual health information in order to make healthy decisions about sex and healthy sexual behaviors.

The article provides statistics and data supporting several points–

  • Comprehensive sex education is effective and does not promote sexual risks
  • Abstinence-Only programs are dangerous, ineffective and inaccurate
  • Medical organizations, parents and the public support comprehensive sex education

The fact sheet also includes characteristics of effective sex education as well as medical and public health recommendations to support comprehensive sex education.

Link to “Effective Sex Education”

Douglas Kirby’s 17 Characteristics at a Glance (2007)

“17 Characteristics at a Glance” is taken from Kirby et al.’s report, Sex and HIV Education Programs for Youth: Their Impact and Important Characteristics and their publication, Tools to Assess Characteristics of Effective Sex and STD/HIV Education Programs (TAC).  This is a brief one page description of the 17 common characteristics of programs found to be effective in changing behaviors that lead to STD, HIV and unintended pregnancy among young people.

To identify those characteristics, Kirby and his colleagues conducted a systematic review of 83 studies of HIV prevention and sex education programs that were from both the developed and developing world.  About 66% of these programs showed positive behavior changes.  The researchers then conducted a more in-depth analysis of characteristics of these curriculum-based programs that showed positive changes.

Citation:

Kirby, D., Rolleri, L. A., Wilson, M. M. Tools to Assess Characteristics of Effective Sex and STD/HIV Education Programs (TAC). 2007.

Link to PDF of “17 Characteristics At A Glance”

Comprehensive Sex Education: Research and Results (2009)

This research takes a look at federal spending on abstinence programs that are proven ineffective.  Statistics that compare the effectiveness of abstinence only programs with comprehensive sex education programs show that the latter is greater and that abstinence programs have no viewable effect on teens reducing sexual activity and/or using safety measures if they do engage in such acts.

  • A congressionally mandated study of four popular abstinence-only programs by the Mathematica found that they were entirely ineffective.  Students who participated in the programs were no more likely to abstain from sex than other students.
  • Experts estimate that about one young person in the United States is infected with HIV every hour of every day.
  • Among youth participating in “virginity pledge” programs, researchers found that among sexually experienced youth, 88 % broke the pledge and had sex before marriage.  Further, among all participants, once pledgers began to have sex, they had more partners in a shorter period of time and were less likely to use contraception or condoms than were their non-pledging peers.

In addition to the information regarding the research done on abstinence programs, the article also includes information regarding the success and need for comprehensive sex education.  According to studies completed, as listed in the article, comprehensive sex education works to reduce teen sexual behavior and encourages using safety measures.

Beyond the results, the article also provides the statistics and information as to why it is so crucial for comprehensive sex education programs.

Citation:  Advocates for Youth (2009).  Comprehensive Sex Education:  Research and Results.

Link to article.

Waxman Report – Abstinence Only Programs (2004)

In 2005, the federal government planned to spend $170 million dollars on abstinence-only sex education programs under the Bush administration.  At the request of Rep. Henry Waxman, this report evaluates the content of the most popular abstinence-only curricula used by grantees of the largest federal abstinence initiative at the time, SPRANS (Special Programs of Regional and National Significance Community-Based Abstinence Education). Through SPRANS, the Department of Health and Human Services provides grants to community organizations that teach abstinence-only curricula to youth. The curricula used in SPRANS and other federally funded programs are not reviewed for accuracy by the federal government.

The report finds that over 80% of the abstinence-only curricula, used by over two-thirds of SPRANS grantees in 2003, contain false, misleading, or distorted information about reproductive health.   Some examples include:

  • None of the curricula provides information on how to select a birth control method and use it effectively. However, several curricula exaggerate condom failure rates in preventing pregnancy.
  • Two other curricula understate condom effectiveness by neglecting to explain that failure rates represent the chance of pregnancy over the course of a year. One states: “Couples who use condoms to avoid a pregnancy have a failure rate of 15%.”50 The other claims: “The typical failure rate for the male condom is 14% in preventing pregnancy.”51 These statements inaccurately suggest that the chance of pregnancy is 14% to 15% after each act of protected intercourse. In addition, they do not make clear that most condom “failure” is due to incorrect or inconsistent use.

The report provides details about the following conclusions–

Abstinence-Only Curricula…

  • Contain false information about the effectiveness of contraceptives
  • Contain false information about the risks of abortion
  • Blur religion and science
  • Treat stereotypes about girls and boys as scientific fact
  • Contain scientific errors

Citation:  United States House of Representatives (2004).  The Content of Federally Funded Abstinence-Only Education Programs.

Link to “Waxman Report- Abstinence Only Programs”

The Accuracy of Condom Information in Three Selected Abstinence-Only Education Curricula (2008)

Condom use promotion has been an important public health strategy for preventing HIV and STIs.  In addition, research has indicated that when used correctly and consistently, condoms can protect against HIV/AIDS, pregnancy, gonorrhea in men, chlamydia, syphilis, herpes, and possibly HPV.  Since 1998, the federal government has greatly expanded its support for abstinence-only education programs (AEO).  In light of continued federal funding, concerns have been raised about the scientific accuracy of the information that is taught.

The authors, Lin and Santelli, reviewed three federally funded AEO curricula for medical accuracy, focusing on condom information.  The three AEOs that were reviewed were– Me, My World, My Future (Teen Aid Inc.), Sexuality, Commitment & Family (Teen-Aid Inc.) and Why kNOw (AAA Women’s Services).  The authors looked at specific statements about condoms as well as scientific references that were cited and considered the current medical understanding about the topic at the time each specific curriculum was published.  Statements were categorized as “out of date, selectively reported and not peer-reviewed” and were also categorized by themes related to aspects of condom use–condom slippage and breakage, contraceptive efficacy, condoms and HIV transmission risk, youth as condom users, and condom availability and distribution (Lin and Santelli 58)

The authors found evidence of misinformation about condoms in the three AOE curricula.  The three curricula conveyed the message that condoms fail to provide protection agains HIV, STIs, and pregnancy.  References that were cited were out of date, from non peer-reviewed sources and the curricula would draw conclusions that went beyond the findings from the cited research.  The authors conclude that the information about condoms in these curricula does not represent accurate, current, and complete medical knowledge about the the effectiveness of condoms as a form of contraception.  The findings also raise important questions about the ethics of AOE promotion and the fact that students need access to medically accurate information, as a minimum.

Citation:  Lin, A. J., & Santelli, J. S. (2008). The accuracy of condom information in three selected abstinence-only education curricula. Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of Nsrc5(3), 56-69. doi:10.1525/srsp.2008.5.3.56

Link to “The Accuracy of Condom Information in Three Selected Abstinence-Only Education Curricula” (Subscription Only).

Positive Youth Development as a Strategy to Promote Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

“Positive Youth Development as a Strategy to Promote Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health” is an editorial of the research study titled “A Review of of Positive Youth Development Programs that Promote Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health,” which can be found in the Journal of Adolescent Health.

Summary:

The use of positive youth development (PYD) is a potential strategy to promote adolescent health because they enhance an adolescent’s ability to respond effectively to developmental challenges they may face. PYD programs help teens seek  positive experiences and support through adults, their school environment, volunteer experiences, and work environment in the future.

PYD program goals should foster one or more of the following developmental outcomes in youth:

  • Connectedness–pro-social and bonding.
  • Competence–cognitive, social, behavioral, emotional, and moral.
  • Character–spirituality and pro-social norms.
  • Confidence–self-efficacy, belief in the future, self- determination, clear and positive identity
  • “An essential part of public health is to provide America’s youth with accurate, age-appropriate information about sexual risk reduction, the benefits of abstaining from sex, teen pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and STI. A number of sex education programs have been developed and shown to effectively reduce sexual risk behavior.” (Gavin et al., 2010, p. S1)
  • “High-quality youth development programs are characterized by the presence of goals that promote positive development, the creation of opportunities and experiences that enable young people to nurture their interests and talents, practice new skills, and gain a sense of confidence, competence and belief in the future, and the creation of an atmosphere of hope and the valuing of youth.” (Gavin, et al., 2010, p. S3)

Citation: Gavin, L. E., Catalano, R. F., David-Ferdon, C., Gloppen, K.M., Markham, C.M. (2010). Positive youth development as a strategy to promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Journal of Adolescent Health. Vol. 46. p. S1-S6

Link to editorial.

Link to “A Review of of Positive Youth Development Programs that Promote Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health”

SexEdLibrary

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SexEdLibrary, a website designed by the Sexual Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS), is the most comprehensive online sex education resource.  They’ve analyzed  hundreds of lesson plans from many sources to offer easy access to the very best information on topics such as sexual and reproductive health, puberty, abstinence, relationships, sexual orientation, body image, self-esteem, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, unintended pregnancy, and more

The website is divided into the following sections:

Click here to access the SexEdLibrary website

Click here to send feedback or email SexEdLibrary

Click here to access the SIECUS website

CDC’s School Health Programs: Improving the Health of our Nation’s Youth (2011)

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This report compiled by the Centers for Disease Control Division of Child and Adolescent Health focuses on how schools can promote health education and decrease health risks children and adolescents face and will face.  The report includes data and information about current (2011) trends regarding health education in schools and also detailed information about CDC’s response and support in schools and towards child and adolescent health promotion.

Schools have a powerful role in promoting the health and safety of young people and helping them establish lifelong healthy behaviors.  Risk behaviors are often established during childhood and adolescence; the six types of health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems in the US are:

  • Tobacco use
  • Unhealthy eating
  • Inadequate physical activity
  • Alcohol and other drug use
  • Sexual behaviors that may result in HIV infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and unintended pregnancy
  • Behaviors that contribute to unintentional injury and violence

The CDC is working with schools by establishing and using the coordinated school health (CSH) approach.  CSH approach focuses on health promotion and education through eight inter-related topics:

  • Health education
  • Physical education
  • Health services
  • Nutrition services
  • Counseling, social and psychological services
  • Healthy and safe school environments
  • Staff wellness
  • Family/community involvement

For more information about CDC’s Coordinated School Health approach, click here.

Citation: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention. (2011). School health programs: Improving the health of our nation’s youth. p. 1-4

Link to “CDC’s School Health Programs: Improving the Health of our Nation’s Youth” (PDF)

A Review of Positive Youth Development Programs That Promote Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

“A Review of Positive Youth Development Programs That Promote Adolescent Sexual & Reproductive Health” has an editorial titled “Positive Youth Development as a Strategy to Promote Adolescent and Reproductive Health” that can be used together. What is quoted below comes directly from the editorial, but is supported from the findings of this research study.

Summary:

The use of positive youth development (PYD) is a potential strategy to promote adolescent health because they enhance an adolescent’s ability to respond effectively to developmental challenges they may face. PYD programs help teens seek  positive experiences and support through adults, their school environment, volunteer experiences, and work environment in the future.

PYD program goals should foster one or more of the following developmental outcomes in youth:

  • Connectedness–pro-social and bonding.
  • Competence–cognitive, social, behavioral, emotional, and moral.
  • Character–spirituality and pro-social norms.
  • Confidence–self-efficacy, belief in the future, self- determination, clear and positive identity
  • “An essential part of public health is to provide America’s youth with accurate, age-appropriate information about sexual risk reduction, the benefits of abstaining from sex, teen pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and STI. A number of sex education programs have been developed and shown to effectively reduce sexual risk behavior.” (Gavin et al., 2010, p. S1)
  • “High-quality youth development programs are characterized by the presence of goals that promote positive development, the creation of opportunities and experiences that enable young people to nurture their interests and talents, practice new skills, and gain a sense of confidence, competence and belief in the future, and the creation of an atmosphere of hope and the valuing of youth.” (Gavin, et al., 2010, p. S3)

Citation: Gavin, L.E., Catalano, R. F., David-Ferdon, C., Gloppen, K.M., Markham, C.M. (2010). A review of positive youth development programs that promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Journal of Adolescent Heath. Vol. 46. p. S75-S91.

Link to article.

Link to “Positive Youth Development as a Strategy to Promote Adolescent and Reproductive Health”

National Guidelines for Internet-Based STD/HIV Prevention (2010)

Summary:

A user-friendly document developed to aid health departments and community-based nonprofit organizations using the Internet as a tool for the control and prevention of STDs including HIV. The Guidelines focus on three distinct types of Internet activities: Internet-based Partner Services (IPS), Outreach, and Health Communications.

  • “This section of the Internet Guidelines makes recommendations for conducting Internet-based partner services (IPS), which includes Internet-based partner notification (IPN), for both STDs and HIV, in virtual settings, such as through e-mail, instant messaging (IM) and in chat rooms.”
  • “This section of the Internet Guidelines makes recommendations for conducting STD/HIV prevention outreach and recruitment activities on the Internet and through virtual settings, such as chat rooms, social networks, bulletin boards, e-mail groups, and other online communities.”

Citation: National Coalition of STD Directors: Promoting Sexual Health through STD Prevention. (2010). National Guidelines for Internet-based STD and HIV Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.ncsddc.org/Internet_Guidelines

Link to website.

Confidence as a Predictor of Sexual and Reproductive Health Outcomes for Youth

Summary:

This article assesses the association between four positive youth development (PYD) constructs of confidence and adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) outcomes. The four constructs are:  belief in the future, self-determination, clear and positive identity, and self-efficacy. According to this study, both belief in the future and self-determination were shown as protective factors for ASRH, while clear and positive identity was shown as a risk factor for ASRA. Self-efficacy has mixed/inconclusive findings.

  •  “Adolescence is a critical developmental stage when young people establish patterns of behavior and make lifestyle choices that affect their current and future health. Many people believe that young people who have high levels of confidence  are more likely to engage in adaptive behaviors related to health and other aspects of their lives than those having low levels of confidence.” (Gloppen et al., 2009, p. S44)
  •  “The review by Gavin et al. included in this issue further suggests that PYD programs targeting the confidence constructs of belief in the future  and self-determination  can have a positive, and often long-lasting, effect on ASRH.” (Gloppen et al., 2009, p. S52)
  •  “Although this review’s examination of nonintervention behavioral research did not indicate substantial evidence that clear and positive identity is a protective factor for ASRH outcomes, the PYD program review findings of Gavin et al.  suggest that helping young people develop a clear and positive identity  may be one of the elements that support healthy sexual and reproductive health decisions.” (Gloppen et al., 2009, p. S53)
  •  “Findings imply that the type of outcome investigated is important to understanding the risk and protective findings. Sexual self-efficacy  may increase sexual initiation, but it also seems to increase protected sex. Future longitudinal research using measures of specific types of sexual self-efficacy  can help clarify these mixed findings.” (Gloppen et al., 2009, p. S54)

Citation: Gloppen, K. M., David-Ferdon, C., Bates, J. (2009). Confidence as a Predictor of Sexual and Reproductive Health for Youth. Journal for Adolescent Health. Vol. 46. p. S42-S58

Link to Google Search.Click on PDF 

Computer Technology-Based HIV Prevention Interventions (2008)

Summary:

This fact sheet discusses the use of technology in the process of behavioral interventions to promote positive practices as way to reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS. These computer technology-based measures are individually tailored, can be interactive videos, and group targeted. The success rates of these computer-based intervention measures were discussed, how these interventions work in a rural context, internet-based interventions, and how to develop internet-based interventions.

  • “Comparison of the impact of computer technology-based interventions with previously tested human-delivered interventions generally revealed similar effects of these two intervention types.” (p. 2)
  • “[In terms of internet-based interventions], many of these types of interventions may show promise in terms of innovative HIV prevention strategies, but strong evaluation data on these approaches are not yet available.” (p. 2)
  • “Interventions were most efficacious when: 1) they targeted a single gender (rather than both genders), 2) they used individualized tailoring and a stages of change model, 3) they included multiple intervention sessions.” (p. 2)

Citation: Rural Center for AIDS/STD Prevention. (2008) Computer Technology-Based HIV Prevention Interventions. No. 22. 1-4

Link to fact sheet.

Parent–Adolescent Sexual Communication: Associations of Condom Use with Condom Discussions (2009)

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This study, published in the journal AIDS and Behavior, examines the relationship between teen-parent sexual communication, discussion about condoms, and condom use among teens in mental health treatment.  Adolescents between the ages 13-17 years old and who have undergone mental health treatment within the past year were eligible.  Both eligible adolescents and their parents were interviewed for data collection.

Several interesting results were found:

  • “Adolescents reported discussing sexual topics more frequently than anticipated […] nearly 80% of adolescents reported discussions about condoms with parents” (Hadley et al. Pg. 1002)
  • “[…] among this sample of adolescents with high rates of psychiatric disorders and family turmoil, discussion about sex occurred at relatively high rates” (Hadley et al. Pg. 1002).
  • “[…] adolescents who report discussing condoms with their parents were significantly more likely to use condoms with their parents were significantly more likely to use condoms consistently” (Hadley et al. Pg. 1003).

Citation:

Hadley, W., Brown, L.K., Lescano, C.M., Kell, H., Spalding, K., DiClemente, R., Donenberg, G. and Project STYLE Study Group. Parent–Adolescent Sexual Communication: Associations of Condom Use with Condom Discussions. 2009. AIDS Behav. 13:997-1004.

Link to “Parent–Adolescent Sexual Communication: Associations of Condom Use with Condom Discussions” (Subscription Only)

Recommendations for Partner Services Programs for HIV Infection, Syphilis, Gonorrhea, and Chlamydial Infection (2008)

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This comprehensive report compiled by the Centers for Disease Control highlight the importance of program collaboration and service integration in the provision of services provided to partners of people with HIV and other STDs such as syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia.  Because coinfection with HIV and one or more other STDs is common, all persons with a diagnosis of HIV should be tested for other types of STDs, and vice versa. Many persons at risk for these infections also are at risk for other infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, as well as various other health conditions. STD and HIV partner services offer STD, HIV, and other public health programs an opportunity for collaboration to deliver comprehensive services to clients, improve program efficiency, and maximize the positive effects on public health.

This resource is intended for program managers who are responsible for overseeing partner services programs at state and local levels.  These recommendations will hopefully be used to help plan, manage prevention measures, target use of resources, establish program priorities, develop program policies and influence future training for staff members.

Link to “Recommendations for Partner Services Programs for HIV Infection, Syphilis, Gonorrhea, and Chlamydial Infection” (PDF)

Oral Sex and HIV Risk (2009)

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The Center for Disease Control and Prevention issued a booklet discussing oral sex and the risk factors associated with it and the risk for HIV. Although the risk of transmitting HIV through oral sex is much lower than through anal and vaginal sex, some studies have demonstrated that oral sex can result in HIV transmission as well as other STD’s.  The only effective way to prevent STD’s is to abstain from vaginal, anal and oral sex or having sex with a monogamous partner where both you and your partner have been tested. Condoms and other barriers between the mouth and genitals can also reduce the risk of contracting HIV or other STDs. 

Oral Sex is a  Common Practice

Oral sex involves giving or receiving oral stimulation (i.e., sucking or licking) to the penis, the vagina, and/or the anus. Fellatio is the technical term used to describe oral contact with the penis. Cunnilingus is the technical term which describes oral contact with the vagina. Anilingus (sometimes called “rimming”) refers to oral-anal contact. Studies indicate that oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. Although there are only limited national data about how often adolescents engage in oral sex, some data suggest that many adolescents who engage in oral sex do not consider it to be “sex;” therefore they may use oral sex as an option to experience sex while still, in their minds, remaining abstinent. Moreover, many consider oral sex to be a safe or no-risk sexual practice. In a national survey of teens conducted for The Kaiser Family Foundation, 26% of sexually active 15- to 17- year-olds surveyed responded that one “cannot become infected with HIV by having unprotected oral sex,” and an additional 15% didn’t know whether or not one could become infected in that manner.

 

To view the entire document: Oral Sex is Not Risk Free